However, a major problem in the study of the relationship between spirituality/religion and health is that randomization is very hard to do, sometimes even impossible. In healthcare literature religion and spirituality are most of the time used interchangeably, although they have quite different meanings (Miller & Thorensen, 2003). The main purpose of any fast is spiritual cleansing. International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, 28, 189-213. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 45,198-213. Religious attendance and cause of death over 31 years. It is probably better to ask someone how much they earn, or about their health history, then to ask them to what religion they practice. Psychological investment in religion and its associations with longevity in the Terman sample. Religious coping, ethnicity, and ambulatory blood pressure. Listening to their beliefs and views on their faith along with how those beliefs are tied into their health can build trust between physician and patient. Koenig, H.G., George, L.K., Hays, J.C., Larson, D.B., Cohen, H.J. Both seem to cover the women and avoid unwanted attention. Religion and Well-being: Assessing the evidence. Effects of Ramadan fasting on lipid peroxidation, serum lipoproteins, and fasting blood sugar. Walton, K.G., Pugh, N.D., Gerderloos, P. & Macrae, P. (1995). A vast literature suggests that people who are more deeply involved in religion tend to enjoy better physical and mental health. Kutner, N.G., Lin, L.S., Fielding, B., Brogan, D. & Hall, W.D. Health Psychology, 19, 211-222. The second interpretation, the ‘psychobiological’ one, considers that spirituality/religion influence health through psychoneuroimmunological or psychoneuroendocrinological pathways beyond the benefits that religion has through health behaviors and social support. Seeman, T. E., Fagan-Dubin, L. & Seeman, M. (2003). Tuberculosis, malaria, mental illnesses, and especially HIV/AIDS are health issues with which Ethiopia continues to grapple. Indeed, some factors may interact with other variables, such that, for example, the relationship spirituality/religion and a health outcome can be different, depending on the categorical level of another variable (e.g. (1997). Sudsuang, R., Chentanez, V. & Vevulan, K. (1991). Journal of Health Psychology ,8, 223-229. Al-Kandari, Y.Y. Infante, J.R., Peran, F., Martinez, M., Roldan, A., Poyatos, R. Ruiz, C., Garrido, S. & Garrido, F. (1998). Conceptualising spirituality and religion for healthcare. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 46, 165-176. However, because this resource is not investigated and used at its full capacity, health psychology risks promoting a cultural iatrogenesis (healer-induced disability to cope with illness) (Oman & Thorensen, 2003). & Davidson, J.M. In the past two decades, the number of studies devoted to the problem of the influence of religious fasting on health has increased considerably. Psychosomatic Medicine, 60, 38-41. Hixon, K.A., Gruchow, H.W. Idler, E.L. & Kasl, S.V. We used to worship the strong and big animals, natural assurances like lightning storm and fire. How Do Spirituality and Religion Influence Health? Thus, the best approach seems to be a longitudinal, randomized study that can observe the changes over a longer period of time and control for any confounding variables. People are still... Shame is an adaptive emotion. , Basu-Zharku, Iulia O. (1999). The devoutly religious have fewer symptoms of anxiety and depression in addition to having a better ability to cope with stressors. Ironson, G., Solomon, G.F., Balbin, E.G., O'Cleirigh, C., George, A., Kumar, M., Larson, D. & Woods, T.E. American Journal of Public Health, 88, 1469-1475. Inquiries Journal/Student Pulse, 3(01). Additional stress in these … Hormones and Behavior, 10, 54-60. Sarri, K.O., Tzanakis, N.E., Linardakis, M.K., Mamalakis, G. D. & Kafatos, A.D. (2003). In addition, the existing and growing literature on the benefits of religion/spirituality should be more thoroughly explored and research on the theme should be encouraged. Spiritual expression and immune status in women with metastatic breast cancer: An explanatory study. Moreover, the views expressed here do not necessarily represent the views of Inquiries Journal or Student Pulse, its owners, staff, contributors, or affiliates. But, religions bring in dress changes like wearing a fully covered dress for women or sari for Hindu women. Home | Current Issue | Blog | Archives | According to recent statistics published by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 2011, Hispanics in the United States tend to outlive non-Hispanic whites by almost three years. One study found that people were much more inclined to use positive coping responses when they received spiritual support from fellow church members.22) When like-minded individuals and families joined together in prayer, mutual support, or religious practice, they viewed their circumstances with spiritual significance: not only mundane daily affairs, but also major life traumas.23) In a study of high-school students from West Virginia, the “ego strengths of hope, will, purpose, fidelity, love, and care” increased as the students lived out their religious beliefs more intently.24), Thus, involvement in religious practice, religious organizations, and religious communities tends to lead to favorable self-image and to foster the development of faith, hope, benevolence, and a belief in divine grace as personal spiritual resources.25), According to the National Survey of Children's Health, parents whose children attended worship at least weekly report slightly less parenting stress than those parents whose children attended worship less frequently.26) (See Chart Below), Both public and private religious practice protect against depression. Archives of Internal Medicine, 161, 1881-1885. Religion and Mental Health . Regular religious practice lessens depression, promotes self-esteem, and builds familial and marital happiness. 5.Religion also sometimes forbids the practice of birth control or preventive practices of immunization. Inquiries Journal/Student Pulse 3 (01), http://www.inquiriesjournal.com/a?id=367, BASU-ZHARKU, I. O. They were also less likely to smoke (tobacco or marijuana) or drink heavily.53), The 2001 cycle of the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) showed that fewer children from families who worshiped had been diagnosed with ADHD (5.2%) than children whose families did not worship (7.1%).54) (See Chart ), NHIS also showed that families that worshiped every other week (or more) were less likely to have been told that their child had a learning disability (6.7 percent) than were families that did not worship (10.2 percent).55) (See Chart Below), 1.2 Stress, Self-Esteem, and Coping Skills, 4. Four most prominent such pathways have been proposed: health behaviors (through prescribing a certain diet and/or discouraging the abuse of alcoholic beverages, smoking, etc., religion can protect and promote a healthy lifestyle), social support (people can experience social contact with co-religionists and have a web of social relations that can help and protect whenever the case), psychological states (religious people can experience a better mental health, more positive psychological states, more optimism and faith, which in turn can lead to a better physical state due to less stress) and ‘psi’ influences (supernatural laws that govern ‘energies’ not currently comprehended by science but possibly understandable at some point by science). The Relationship between Spirituality and Health, The Relationship between Religion and Health, Effects of Collectivistic and Individualistic Cultures on Imagination Inflation in Eastern and Western Cultures, Chinese Women and Christianity in the Late Imperial Era, Gender-Specific Language of the Major Prophets in The Hebrew Bible: The Case of the First and Second Isaiah, Byzantine and Russian Influences in Andrei Rublev's Art, Solving Health Issues in Ethiopia with Religion. Pesut, B., Fowler, M., Taylor, E.J., Reimer-Kirkham, S. & Sawatzky, R. (2008). Learn more | Blog | Submit. While studies have linked Medical Debt to decreased savings, reduced health access, foreclosure of homes, and loss of income, there has been little to no research exploring Medical Debt’s effect as a social determinant of health. Inquiries Journal provides undergraduate and graduate students around the world a platform for the wide dissemination of academic work over a range of core disciplines. Retrieved from http://www.inquiriesjournal.com/a?id=367, Basu-Zharku, Iulia O. Dealing with the issue of healthcare is no small challenge for any country, either rich or poor. McCullough, M.E., Hoyt, W.T., Larson, D.B., Koenig, H.G. Available: http://www.inquiriesjournal.com/a?id=367. A randomized controlled trial of stress reduction for hypertension in older African Americans. When making decisions, a person must rationally analyze their options and understand potential outcomes. 2011. &Williams, D.R. Adolescent Practice of Religious Worship, http://www.manhattaninstitute.org/pdf/crrucs_objective_hope.pdf, http://assets.pewresearch.org/wp-content/uploads/sites/11/2016/04/Religion-in-Everyday-Life-FINAL.pdf, http://marri.us/wp-content/uploads/MA-49-51-165.pdf, http://marri.us/wp-content/uploads/MA-34-36-160.pdf, http://marri.us/wp-content/uploads/MA-140.pdf, http://marri.us/wp-content/uploads/MA-141.pdf, 95 Social Science Reasons for Religious Worship and Practice, Why Religion Matters Even More: The Impact of Religious Practice on Social Stability. [1] These serious illnesses, which have the greatest mortality rate of any psychological disorder, are characterized... Research shows conflicting results when relaying how personality traits play into successful and satisfying romantic relationships. The birth, enlightenment, and death of Buddha are the three most commonly recognized festivals for feasting, resting from work, or fasting. Emotions, the way that we feel in a particular moment, are also involved in how we respond to others. The General Social Survey (GSS) also showed that 35 percent of adults who attended religious services at least monthly and lived in an intact family through adolescence considered themselves very happy, compared to 23 percent of adults who attended religious services less than monthly and lived in a non-intact family as adolescents.12) (See Chart Below), More frequent attendance at religious services predicted less distress among adults13) and high school students,14) even when controlling for for normal sociodemographic predictors.15) For adults, a strong belief in eternal life also predicted less harmful stress from work-related problems.16) African-Americans who were more religious reported a greater sense of control than less religious respondents; this greater sense of control was, in turn, correlated with decreased distress.17) People who were frequently involved in religious activities and highly valued their religious faith were at reduced risk of depression, according to a review of more than 100 studies.18) Those who participated in community religious services had lower levels of depression than those who did not fellowship in a religious community but prayed alone.19) First-graders and kindergartners whose parents attended religious services were less likely to experience anxiety, loneliness, low self-esteem, and sadness.20) Adolescents at one public school in Texas who frequently attended religious services and derived great meaning and purpose from religion in their lives had lower levels of depression than their less religious peers.21), Membership in a religious community can enhance coping skills. American Psychologist, 58, 24-35. Physiology and Behavior, 50, 543-548. Religious involvement and mortality: A meta-analytic review. (2001). (1997). The Influence of Religion on Health. ISSN: 2153-5760. Whether and how religion and spirituality training are critical components of students’ and clinicians’ development of cultural humility is explored in this month's issue. Religion exists almost as long as does human kind. Surveys show that people would like to be able to talk about matters of faith in psychological treatment. Religion can serve as a source of comfort and strength when people are under stress. But why is the religion so important to so many people? The Rise of Global Health: How Did Health Become a Matter of Global Concern? & Sawatzky, R. ( 2008 ) illnesses, and blood pressure, pulse rate, lung,! Religion and well-being: Assessing the evidence for biological pathways sources of problems that need to addressed... 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